Preload is the stretch. The amount of volume being returned to the right side of the heart from systemic circulation.
Afterload is the squeeze. The amount of resistance the left side of the heart has to overcome in order to eject blood.
Location of heart sounds.
On NCLEX, heart sounds can appear in a multiple-choice format question or a hot spot question.
5 areas to remember: APETM
Here’s another illustration by Nursing Education Consultants, Inc. (2007):
Mnemonics (input by various people)
- APE To Man
- All People Enjoy Time Magazine
- All Physicians Earn Too Much
- All Patients Enjoy Taking Meds
- All Pigs Eat Too Much
Electrolyte imbalance: normal lab values.
IMPORTANT ELECTROLYTE VALUES TO KNOW FOR YOUR NCLEX:
Remember: NCLEX will never give you a value that is too close to the normal value.
For example: NCLEX will not give you a sodium level of 134 and ask you to definitely say the patient has hyponatremia. The value will more likely be 130 or less.